MHD Software

 

The fluid models proceed from taking velocity moments of the kinetic equation. The best known of these are the extended magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) models which represent the plasma as one or more interacting conducting fluids. This higher-level description frees the model of many fine-scale resolution requirements and makes feasible the simulation of large-scale motions and instabilities. Extensive theoretical analysis over the years has led to refinements of the fluid model and improved the closure relations so that many nonfluid effects, such as particle motion and wave–particle resonances, can be represented at some level.